Research paper interpretation of data

Presentation 2. Analysis 3. Interpretation 3. Textual - statements with numerals or numbers that serve as supplements to tabular presentation 5. Tabular - a systematic arrangement of related idea in which classes of numerical facts or data are given each row and their subclasses are given each a column in order to present the relationships of the sets or numerical facts or data in a definite, compact and understandable form 6. The table should be so constructed that it enables the reader to comprehend the data presented without referring to the text; 2.

The text should be so written that it allows the reader to understand the argument presented without referring to the table. Campbell, Ballou and Slade, 7. Graphical — a chart representing the quantitative variations or changes of variables in pictorial or diagrammatic form 8. Bar graphs 2.

Find the story in your data

Linear graphs 3. Pie graphs 4. Pictograms 5. Statistical maps 6. Ratio charts 9. Calderon, Qualitative Analysis — is not based on precise measurement and quantitative claims.

PSSC: 51 Social analysis; 2. From the biggest to the smallest class; 3. Most important to the least important; 4. Ranking of students according to brightness; Quantitative Analysis — is employed on data that have been assigned some numerical value. What do the results of the study mean? This part is, perhaps, the most critical aspect of the research report. How do we interpret the result s of our study? Tie up the results of the study in both theory and application by pulling together the: a. Examine, summarize, interpret and justify the results; then, draw inferences. Consider the following: Integrate your findings into a principle; 2.

Qualitative Data- Definition, Types, Analysis and Examples

Integrate a theory into your findings; and 3. Use these findings to formulate an original theory Recommend or apply alternatives As reflected in the table, there was… 4. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, 24, Lefort, S. The statistical versus clinical significance debate.

Helpful Tips on Composing a Research Paper Data Analysis Section

Image, 25, Kendall, P. Normative comparisons in therapy outcome. Behavioral Assessment, 10, Nowak, R.

Problems in clinical trials go far beyond misconduct. Resnik, D. Statistics, ethics, and research: an agenda for educations and reform. Accountability in Research. Schroder, K. Methodological challenges in research on sexual risk behavior: I.

Item content, scaling, and data analytic options. Ann Behav Med, 26 2 : Shamoo, A. Responsible Conduct of Research. Oxford University Press. Principles of Research Data Audit. Gordon and Breach, New York. Shepard, R. Ethics in exercise science research. Sports Med, 32 3 : Silverman, S. Research on teaching in physical education doctoral dissertations: a detailed investigation of focus, method, and analysis. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 22 3 : Smeeton, N.

Conducting and presenting social work research: some basic statistical considerations. Br J Soc Work, Thompson, B.


This will help you organize your data and focus your analysis. For example, if you wanted to improve a program by identifying its strengths and weaknesses, you can organize data into program strengths, weaknesses and suggestions to improve the program. If you wanted to fully understand how your program works, you could organize data in the chronological order in which customers or clients go through your program.

If you are conducting a performance improvement study, you can categorize data according to each measure associated with each overall performance result, e. Also consider Analyzing Data and Communicating Results. Ideally, the organization's management decides what the research goals should be. Then a research expert helps the organization to determine what the research methods should be, and how the resulting data will be analyzed and reported back to the organization. If an organization can afford any outside help at all, it should be for identifying the appropriate research methods and how the data can be collected.

The organization might find a less expensive resource to apply the methods, e. If no outside help can be obtained, the organization can still learn a great deal by applying the methods and analyzing results themselves. However, there is a strong chance that data about the strengths and weaknesses of a product, service or program will not be interpreted fairly if the data are analyzed by the people responsible for ensuring the product, service or program is a good one.


These people will be "policing" themselves. This caution is not to fault these people, but rather to recognize the strong biases inherent in trying to objectively look at and publicly at least within the organization report about their work. Therefore, if at all possible, have someone other than the those responsible for the product, service or program to look at and determine research results.

Ensure your research plan is documented so that you can regularly and efficiently carry out your research activities. In your plan, record enough information so that someone outside of the organization can understand what you're researching and how. For example, consider the following format:. To round out your knowledge of this Library topic, you may want to review some related topics, available from the link below.

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